Being knowledgeable about OCD is a powerful tool that’s linked to success in treating this disorder. Understanding barriers to treatment and knowing what to expect ahead of time are extremely important to successful treatment.
Underdiagnosis and Undertreatment
Even though it’s a relatively common illness, and effective treatment is available, OCD is too often underdiagnosed and undertreated. There are a number of reasons why:
- Hiding symptoms: Some people hide their symptoms and do not seek help. Many don’t know that OCD is treatable, while others are reluctant to admit they need help. OCD is a medical condition, like asthma or diabetes, and there’s no need to be ashamed to seek treatment.
- Discomfort discussing symptoms: OCD can involve unwanted thoughts with disturbing content, including violence, sexuality (e.g., homosexual, paraphilic, or pedophilic obsessions), blasphemy and illness. Some people with OCD are uncomfortable discussing these thoughts, even with a treatment provider. A person with OCD normally has no desire to act on these thoughts, which recur precisely because they are so upsetting. Cognitive behavior therapists are trained to work with people whose lives are impaired by such intrusive thoughts.
- Fear of Change: Change can be difficult. It takes courage to make changes and face fears, particularly if the obsessions and compulsions have existed for many years. Some people with OCD are afraid to begin treatment because they feel a sense of safety and control over their symptoms with their current coping mechanisms. As a result, control may be very difficult to give up. But living with untreated OCD is far more painful than any discomfort associated with treatment.
- Compulsive avoidance: Avoidance isn’t always recognized as an OCD symptom. Many people with OCD avoid places, events, objects and even people because of uncontrollable, irrational fears. For example, a person with harm obsessions may avoid scissors, knives, or sharp objects. In these cases, avoidance is a compulsion. Continued avoidance strengthens obsessions and worsens the disorder.
- Unrecognized symptoms: Like avoidance, there are many common but less familiar symptoms that may not be recognized as signs of OCD. The disorder can take many forms and isn’t limited to familiar or obvious types of OCD such as compulsive washing or repeating. Examples of symptoms that can go unrecognized include:
- Difficulty making decisions or inability to make a decision
- Asking repetitive questions
- Constantly seeking reassurance
- Difficulties with diagnosis: Not all physicians and mental health clinicians know how to diagnose and treat OCD. At routine check-ups, many doctors fail to ask questions about a patient’s mental health. Some professionals – even psychiatrists – lack training in recognizing and treating OCD.
- Ineffective or inappropriate treatment: Some psychologists and psychiatrists still rely on unproven, ineffective therapies to treat OCD. Psychoanalysis and therapies that focus on family dynamics, early childhood trauma or issues of self-esteem are not effective treatments for OCD. While certain forms of therapy, such as marriage and family counseling, can help with relationship problems and other difficulties that often accompany OCD, only CBT can reduce the actual symptoms of the disorder. In some cases, treatment providers only prescribe medications to treat OCD because they’re unfamiliar with Cognitive Behavior Therapy as the treatment of choice for OCD.
- Treatment affordability: Some people with OCD are unable to afford treatment. Those without health insurance or whose insurance policies do not fully cover mental health care sometimes struggle to get the treatment they need. Some cognitive behavior therapists make therapy more affordable by offering sliding scale fees, which are fees based upon one’s ability to pay. When a professional recommends the use of medication in conjunction with CBT, patients may be able to obtain drugs at a reduced price. A number of resources offer information about prescription assistance, including the Partnership for Prescription Assistance (1-888-4PPA-NOW or http://www.pparx.org/) and NeedyMeds (http://www.needymeds.com/).
Roadblocks to Treatment Success
Most people who go through a course of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for OCD experience a significant reduction in symptoms. Those who don’t do well in treatment should consider these possible obstacles to success:
- Recovery avoidance. Avoiding treatment or not fully committing to treatment sessions and the accompanying homework can derail the treatment process.
- Comorbid disorders: Mood disorders such as major depression or bipolar disorder, alcoholism or substance abuse, or another comorbid disorder can interfere with success in therapy and may require separate treatment.
- Poor communication with therapist: Open and honest communication about the exact nature and frequency of obsessions and compulsions is critical for the therapist to design effective exposures. People often fear revealing all of their symptoms, either because they feel ashamed of their thoughts, or because they believe it would be impossible for therapy to help them with obsessions or compulsions that are particularly troubling. Keeping certain aspects of your OCD secret will diminish the therapist’s ability to help you overcome your OCD.
- Therapy sessions too infrequent: Therapy sessions are generally scheduled weekly, but in some cases may need to be more frequent or conducted in a residential treatment setting.
- Insufficient exposures: Exposures must be sufficiently challenging, and it is imperative that “homework” – daily exposure exercises – be completed between therapy sessions.
- Improper location for therapy: Therapy sessions may be more effective if they are held in locations that trigger obsessions and compulsions – in a person’s home, car or outdoors, for example. Some therapists will conduct sessions out of the office, by telephone, online or via webcam technology, such as Skype.
- Wrong choice of therapist: An individual may be unsuccessful with a particular therapist because the personality fit may not be right, or the therapist may not design challenging, appropriate exposures. The clinician may also lack specific knowledge and/or experience in treating OCD. Fortunately, a person may enjoy excellent results with another therapist. Always ask for a second opinion, request a referral or interview other therapists to find a good match.
- Inappropriate treatment: CBT, sometimes accompanied by medication, is the only treatment for OCD that is supported by scientific evidence. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of treatments such as hypnosis, herbal or homeopathic remedies, psychoanalysis, relaxation therapy, eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) or dietary changes. It’s important to note, however, that meditation, yoga and exercise can complement formal treatment for OCD. Many people find these tools to be extremely effective in helping reduce anxiety and facilitating the treatment process.
- Family interference: Family members who participate in an individual’s compulsive rituals, provide reassurance or enable avoidance behavior can unintentionally sabotage success in therapy. Your treatment provider may instruct family members to refrain from engaging in certain behaviors that can have a negative impact on your treatment, even though they are well-intended. In some cases, a family member can be trained to act as a “coach” to keep track of exposures and discourage behavior by others that perpetuate the rituals.
- Lack of support: Talking to others who have learned to master their symptoms can encourage a person with OCD to undertake the challenge of therapy and increase the likelihood of success. Joining a local support group, participating in an online support group or contacting Beyond OCD or the International OCD Foundation are good ways to find people with similar experiences. Note: Non-therapeutic support groups can be extremely beneficial, but they should complement – not replace – appropriate treatment.
If Symptoms Return
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a chronic condition. Symptoms can be managed, but they may reappear in the same or a different form. For example, a person with repeating compulsions may succeed in therapy, but experience checking obsessions several years later.
Cognitive behavior therapists stress the importance of following through with exposures after therapy sessions have been completed and teach people to recognize and respond to new or returning symptoms, particularly during stressful times. Booster or refresher therapy sessions may be necessary from time to time to reinforce treatment gains. Typically, follow-up treatment requires fewer sessions than the original course of therapy.